• 11 March 2008
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India ranks 5th

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India ranks 5th

India enters the top 5 club of GM crop growing nations.

India , the largest cotton growing country in the world and highly dependent on agriculture, first adopted Bt cotton in 2002 when 54,000 farmers grew approximately 50,000 hectares of officially approved Bt cotton hybrids for the first time and doubled its Bt cotton area to approximately 100, 000 hectares in 2003. The area further increased four fold in 2004 to reach half a million hectares. In 2005, the area planted under Bt cotton rose steadily to reach 1.3 million hectares, an increase of 160 percent over 2004. In 2006, the area tripled to a record 3.8 million hectares. The tripling in area was the highest percentage year-on-year growth for any country planting biotech crops in the world in 2006. India's Bt cotton area in 2006 also exceed that of China's 3.5 million hectares. In 2007, the Indian cotton sector continued to grow with a record increase of 63 percent reaching 6.2 million hectares, thus having the highest percentage of year-on-year growth compared to any other Bt cotton growing country in the world. India also overtook the US to become the second largest cotton producing country in the world after China. There has also been an increase in the number of approved Bt cotton hybrids. A total of 131 Bt cotton hybrids were approved for planting in 2007 compared to 62 in 2006, 20 in 2005 and only four Bt cotton hybrids in 2004. Over the years, India has diversified deployment of Bt genes and genotypes which are adapted to different agro-economical zones and to ensure equitable distribution to small and resource poor cotton farmers.

The future

Crop biotech investments from both public and private sectors in India, conservatively estimated at $100 million per annum, are focused on the development of biotech food, feed and fiber crops that can contribute to higher and more stable yields and enhanced nutrition. Several public institutions and private companies in India have projects to develop varieties of the drought tolerant eggplant or brinjal. The eggplant projects are all geared to deliver biotech products for evaluation and approval by the government in the near-term representing India's first biotech food product.

Global status of GM crops

According to the latest report by ISAAA on the global statutes of commercialized biotech/GM crops, the first dozen years of biotech crops starting from 1996-2007 have delivered substantial economic and environmental benefits to farmers in both industrialized nations and developing countries. In 2007, the global area of biotech crops, with growth at a sustained rate of 12 percent, was cultivated in 114.3 million hectares. The year also saw the number of countries planting biotech crops increase to 23, of which 12 were developing countries and 11 industrial countries. Chile, producing over 25,000 hectares of commercial biotech crops for seed export, and Poland (EU), growing Bt maize for the first time, are the two new biotech crop countries in 2007. The US, followed by Argentina, Brazil, Canada, India and China continued to be the principal adopters of biotech crops globally. The US accounted for 50 percent of the total biotech area (57.7 million hectares) that was mainly spurred by a growing market for ethanol with the biotech maize area increasing by a substantial 40 percent.

Developing countries record an increase in biotech acreage

The accumulated hectarage from 1996 to 2007 exceeded two thirds of a billion hectares for the first time at 690 million hectares with an unprecedented increase between 1996 and 2007, making it the fastest adopted technology in recent history. During 1996-2007, the proportion of global area of biotech crops grown by developing countries increased consistently every single year. In 2007, 43 percent of the global biotech crop area (up from 40 percent in 2006) equivalent to 49.4 million hectares was grown in developing countries. In 2006-2007, the growth in developing countries (21 percent) was substantially higher than that of industrialized nations. All the five principal developing countries committed to biotech crops span all three continents in the south--India and China in Asia, Argentina and Brazil in Latin America and South Africa on the African continent.

 

Biotech crops in field trial in India 2007

 

no

 

Crop

Organization

 

Transgene

1

 

Brinjal

 

IARI, New Delhi

Sungro seeds New Delhi

Mahyco Mumbai

TNAU Coimbatore

cry1Aa, cry1Aabc

cry1Ac

cry1Ac

2.

 

Cabbage

 

Nunhems India pvt Ltd

 

Cry1Ba, cry1Ca

 

3.

 

Castor

 

Directorate of Oil seeds research(DOR), Hyderabad

 

Cry1Aa, cry1Ec

 

4.

 

Cauliflower

 

Sungro seeds New Delhi

Nunhems India pvt Ltd

cry1Ac, cry1Ba, cry1Ca

cry1Ac, cry1Ba, cry1Ca

5.

 

Corn

 

Monsanto, Mumbai

 

cry1Ab gene(Mon 810 event)

 

6.

 

Groundnut

 

ICRISAT Hyderabad

 

Chitinase gene from rice(Rchit)

 

7.

 

Okra

 

Mahyco Mumbai

 

cry1Ac, cry2Ab

 

8

 

Potato

 

Central Potato research Institute (CPRI)

 

RB gene delivered from Solanum bulbocastanum

 

9

 

Rice

 

IARI, New Delhi

Mahyco Mumbai

TNAU Coimbatore

cry1B-cry1Aa fusion gene

cry1Ac,cry2Asssb

rice chitinase(chi11) or tobacco osmotin gene

10

 

Tomato

 

IARI, New Delhi

Mahyco, Mumbai

Antisense replicase gene of tomato leaf curl virus

cry1Ac

Source: IGMORRIS NIC India 2007

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2007 – Strong growth across the Globe

  • In North America, US grows by 3.1 mill has, - 37% of 57.7m stacked,10m ha for biofuel, 40% growth in maize

  • In Asia, India increases Bt cotton by 63% to 6.2 million ha. & China by 9% to 3.8 million ha. - Philippine grows

  • In South America, Brazil - biotech soybean & cotton grows by 30% to 15.0 mill.has. –Argentina #2 + Chile

  • South Africa increases biotech area by 30% to 1.8 mill. ha, with most of increase in white Bt maize for food

  • Poland is 8th EU country to plant Bt maize. EU has >100,000 hectares for 1st time – 77% growth in 2007

Source: Clive James 2008

 

The Future – The 2nd Next Decade, 2006 - 2015

  • Continued growth in US, Canada and Australia through stacking and expanded range of crops featuring agronomic, quality & other traits plus the very important trait of drought tolerance in about 3 years . Biotech crop adoption facilitated by high commodity prices

  • 1st decade 1996-2005, was the decade of the Americas, 2nd decade will likely feature strong growth in Asia led by India, China & new countries like Vietnam

  • Brazil has enormous potential to be the lead country in Lat America

  • Africa - # of biotech countries to increase modestly , led by Egypt in N. Africa, Burkina Faso in W Africa and Kenya in E. Africa

  • Slow to modest growth in the EU, & potential in Eastern Europe

  • Use of biotech crops for biofuel- ethanol & biodiesel- led by US and Brazil plus many other countries will be a major new development.

Compiled by Clive James, 2008

 

Bt cotton – A remarkable India story

  • World's largest cotton area; cotton is key cash crop grown by 5.5 million farmers, impacting 60 million lives in 9 states

  • Cotton accounts for 65% of the fiber used in India.

  • Cotton grows in different climatic conditions-65% in dry-land and 35% on irrigated land

  • 131 location specific Bt cotton hybrids with 4 different events.

  • It is also now the Second Largest exporter of raw cotton with an export of 6.5 million bales in 2007-08.

  • India (5.334 million tons) overtook the US (4.144 million tons) to become the second largest cotton producer in the World in 2007-08.

 

 

Developing countries continue to record bigger gains in biotech area than industrial countries in 2007

  • From 1996 to 2007, the percentage of global area of biotech crops in developing countries increased every single year- reached 43% in 2007, up from 40% in 2006

  • Biotech area in developing countries grew by 8.5 million hectares, or 21% in 2007, compared with 3.8 million hectares or 6 % in industrial countries

  • The five lead biotech crop developing countries - India, China, Argentina, Brazil and South Africa, with a combined population of 2.6 billion (40% of global) grew 45.9 million hectares of biotech crops in 2006, equivalent to 40% of global total

Source: Clive James 2008

 

2007 Highlights-Area continues to soar

  • 114.3 million hectares versus 102 mill has. in 2006

  • 12.3 million ha. increase - 12% - 2nd highest in 5 years

  • 114.3 m. has in 23 countries, up from 102 m has in 22 countries in 2006 – 10% area used for biofuel in 2007.

  • 690 million hectares planted globally since 1996

  • 12 mill. biotech farmers, up from 10.3 million in 2006 - 90% or 11million are resource-poor farmers – 1st time to exceed 10 million small farmers in dev. countries

  • Of 6.5 billion global population 55%, 3.6 billion, live in the 23 biotech countries in 2007

Source: Clive James 2008

 

Biotech Crops Development of new events/crops continues in 2007

  • India approves four biotech cotton events; MON531 and MON15985 of Mahyco/Monsanto, Event-1 of JK seeds and GFM Event developed by Nath Seeds in 2007

  • SIX NEW BIOTECH COTTON EVENTS are at different stages of regulatory approval in India developed by the Central Institute for Cotton Research (CICR), Mahyco/Monsanto, JK Seeds, Dow AgroSciences, Deltapine/Monsanto and by Metahelix.

  • Approval of LARGE SCALE FIELD TRIALS for Bt Brinjal (Eggplant) developed by Mahyco in collaboration with the Indian Institute of Vegetable Research (IIVR) of ICAR.

  • Approval of Multi Location Research Trials (MLRT) for RICE, MUSTARD, BRINJAL, OKRA, GROUNDNUT, TOMATO AND POTATO

 

Supreme Court lifts restrictions

  • The Supreme Court of India lifts restrictions on all field trials and commercialization of biotech crops on 13 Feb 2008

  • An enabling policy spurs growth of biotech crops

  • More than 12 biotech crops in development

  • l Rice- a major staple, insect resistant being field tested and other traits are at fast track development.

  • Brinjal, an important vegetable, resistant to fruit and shoot borer in large scale field trials.

 

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Biotech Crops – Global Economic Benefits:
1996 to 2006, and 2006

 

 

1996-2006

 

2006

ALL COUNTRIES

 

$33.7 billion

 

$7.0 billion

USA

 

$15.9 billion

 

$2.9 billion

Argentina

 

$6.6 billion

 

$1.3 billion

China

 

$5.8 billion

 

$0.8 billion

Brazil

 

$1.9 billion

 

$0.6 billion

India

 

$1.3 billion

 

$0.8 billion

Canada

 

$1.2 billion

 

$0.3 billion

Others

 

$1.0 billion

$0.3 billion

Source: Brookes and Barfoot 2008

Projections for the 2nd Decade, 2006 - 2015

 

2007

2015

# of Biotech Countries

23

 

~ 4

# of Farmers Planting
Biotech Crops

12 million

 

up to 100 million

 

Global Biotech Area

114 million hectares

 

~ 200 million

hectares

Source: Brookes and Barfoot 2008

Adoption of Bt Cotton in India by Major States ('000 hectares)

 

State

2004

 

2005

 

2006

 

2007

Maharashtra

200

 

607

 

1,840

 

2,880

 

Andhra Pradesh

75

 

208

 

830

 

1,190

 

Gujarat

122

 

150

 

470

 

818

 

Madhya Pradesh

80

 

146

 

310

 

500

 

Northern Zone*

- -

 

60

 

215

 

592

 

Karnataka

18

 

30

 

85

 

145

 

Tamil Nadu

5

 

27

 

45

 

70

 

Other

- -

 

- -

 

5

 

5

 

Total

500

 

1,300

 

3,800

 

6,200

 

* Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan Source: ISAAA, 2007.

Cotton Area, Production and Yield in India
(2001-08)

Year

 

Area (Million Hectares)

 

Production (Million Bales)

Yield (kg lint per hectare)

2001 – 02

8.73

 

15.8

 

308

 

2002 – 03

7.67

 

13.6

 

302

 

2003 – 04

 

7.63

 

17.9

 

399

 

2004 – 05

 

8.92

 

24.3

 

463

 

2005 – 06

 

8.87

 

24.4

 

467

 

2006 – 07

 

9.158

 

28.0

 

520

 

2007 – 08

9.400*

 

31.0*

 

560*

 

1 bale = 170 kg *Cotton Advisory Board (CAB) projections for 2007-08 season

Source: CAB, Office of Textile Commissioner, Ministry of Textile, Government of India.

Cotton-Declining consumption of Insecticides

Cotton Insecticides Vs Total Agrochemicals

Item/Year

1998

 

2006

 

Total Agrochemical Market (Rs in Crore)

3470.7

 

4038.6

 

% of Cotton Insecticides to Total Agrochemical Market

30

 

18

 

% of Cotton Insecticides to Total Insecticide Market

42

 

28

 

  • The share of cotton insecticides to the total agrochemical market drops from 30% in 1998 to 18% in 2006.

  • The consumption of cotton insecticides has declined rapidly after introduction of Bt cotton. The cotton insecticides was the major segment in the chemical industry till 2002

  • The market share of cotton insecticides to total insecticides declined from 42% in 1998 to 28% in 2006

  • The sharpest decline occurred in the bollworm market which declined by 77% mostly on account of Bt cotton introduction

Source: Chemical Industry, 2007

Farmers benefit

According to the ISAAA report, biotech crops have delivered unprecedented benefits that contribute toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), particularly in countries like China, India and South Africa. The potential in the second decade of biotech crop commercialization (2006-2015) is enormous.

Studies in India and China show Bt cotton has increased yields by up to 50 percent and 10 percent, respectively, and reduced insecticide use in both countries up to 50 percent or more.

In India, growers increased income by up to $250 (Rs 10,000) or more per hectare, increasing farmer income nationally from $840 million to $1.7 billion last year. It is noteworthy that for the six year period 2002-2007, there was a 125 fold increase in Bt cotton in India – this is four times the 67 fold increase for global biotech crops during the 12 year period 1996-2007. Chinese farmers saw similar gains with incomes growing an average of $220 per hectare, or more than $800 million nationally. Importantly, these studies showed strong farmer confidence in the crops with 9 of 10 Indian farmers replanting biotech cotton year on year, and 100 percent of Chinese farmers choosing to continue utilizing the technology.

While these types of economic benefits are well substantiated, the welfare benefits associated with biotech crops are starting to emerge. A study of 9,300 Bt cotton and non-Bt cotton-growing households in India indicated that women and children in Bt cotton households have slightly more access to welfare benefits than non-Bt cotton growers. These include slight increases in pre-natal visits, assistance with at-home births, higher school enrollment for children and a higher proportion of children vaccinated.

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