• 3 April 2008
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The Nobel Prize in Biology, 1982-2007

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The Nobel Prize in Biology, 1982-2007

During the period 1901-2000, a total of about 190 scientists were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine. And 58 of them received the Prize between 1982 and 2007. Their discoveries range from basic to clinical research. The following is a compilation the scientists who were awarded Nobel Prizes during the last 25 years and their brief discoveries.

2007: Mario Capecchi, Martin Evans, Oliver Smithies: the technique behind gene targeting and knockout mice.

2006: Andrew Z. Fire, Craig C. Mello: RNA interference – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA

2005: Barry J. Marshall, J. Robin Warren: the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease

2004: Richard Axel, Linda B. Buck: odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system

2003: Paul C. Lauterbur, Peter Mansfield: magnetic resonance imaging

2002: Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz, John E. Sulston: genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death

2001: Leland H. Hartwell, Tim Hunt, Sir Paul Nurse: key regulators of the cell cycle

2000: Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard, Eric R. Kandel: signal transduction in the nervous system

1999: Günter Blobel: the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localisation in the cell

1998: Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro, Ferid Murad: nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system

1997: Stanley B. Prusiner: Prions, a new principle of infection

1996: Peter C. Doherty, Rolf M. Zinkernagel: cell mediated immunity

1995: Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Eric F. Wieschaus: discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development

1994: Alfred G. Gilman, Martin Rodbell: G-proteins and their role in signal transduction in cells

1993: Richard J. Roberts, Phillip A. Sharp: split genes

1992: Edmond H. Fischer, Edwin G. Krebs: reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism

1991: Erwin Neher, Bert Sakmann: function of single ion channels

1990: Joseph E. Murray, E. Donnall Thomas: development of cell and organ transplantation.

1989: J. Michael Bishop, Harold E. Varmus: retroviral oncogenes

1988: James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion, George H. Hitchings: important principles for drug treatment

1987: Susumu Tonegawa: genetics of antibody formation

1986: Stanley Cohen, Rita Levi-Montalcini: growth factors

1985: Michael S. Brown, Joseph L. Goldstein: regulation of cholesterol metabolism

1984: Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler, César Milstein: control of the immune system and monoclonal antibodies

1983: Barbara McClintock: mobile genetic elements

1982: Sune K. Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson, John R. Vane: prostaglandins and related biologically active substances

Compiled from www.nobelprizes.org and various other internet sites on Nobel Prizes.


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