The Nobel Prize in Biology, 1982-2007
During the period 1901-2000, a total of about 190 scientists were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine. And 58 of them received the Prize between 1982 and 2007. Their discoveries range from basic to clinical research. The following is a compilation the scientists who were awarded Nobel Prizes during the last 25 years and their brief discoveries.
2007: Mario Capecchi, Martin Evans, Oliver Smithies: the technique behind gene targeting and knockout mice.
2006: Andrew Z. Fire, Craig C. Mello: RNA interference – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA
2005: Barry J. Marshall, J. Robin Warren: the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease
2004: Richard Axel, Linda B. Buck: odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system
2003: Paul C. Lauterbur, Peter Mansfield: magnetic resonance imaging
2002: Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz, John E. Sulston: genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death
2001: Leland H. Hartwell, Tim Hunt, Sir Paul Nurse: key regulators of the cell cycle
2000: Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard, Eric R. Kandel: signal transduction in the nervous system
1999: Günter Blobel: the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localisation in the cell
1998: Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro, Ferid Murad: nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system
1997: Stanley B. Prusiner: Prions, a new principle of infection
1996: Peter C. Doherty, Rolf M. Zinkernagel: cell mediated immunity
1995: Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Eric F. Wieschaus: discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development
1994: Alfred G. Gilman, Martin Rodbell: G-proteins and their role in signal transduction in cells
1993: Richard J. Roberts, Phillip A. Sharp: split genes
1992: Edmond H. Fischer, Edwin G. Krebs: reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism
1991: Erwin Neher, Bert Sakmann: function of single ion channels
1990: Joseph E. Murray, E. Donnall Thomas: development of cell and organ transplantation.
1989: J. Michael Bishop, Harold E. Varmus: retroviral oncogenes
1988: James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion, George H. Hitchings: important principles for drug treatment
1987: Susumu Tonegawa: genetics of antibody formation
1986: Stanley Cohen, Rita Levi-Montalcini: growth factors
1985: Michael S. Brown, Joseph L. Goldstein: regulation of cholesterol metabolism
1984: Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler, César Milstein: control of the immune system and monoclonal antibodies
1983: Barbara McClintock: mobile genetic elements
1982: Sune K. Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson, John R. Vane: prostaglandins and related biologically active substances
Compiled from www.nobelprizes.org and various other internet sites on Nobel Prizes.